California Standards for the
Teaching Profession: Standard Four
PLANNING INSTRUCTION & DESIGNING LEARNING EXPERIENCES FOR ALL STUDENTS 4.1 Drawing on and valuing students’ backgrounds, interests, and developmental needs 4.2 Establishing and articulating goals for student learning 4.3 Developing and sequencing instructional activities and materials for student learning 4.4 Designing shortterm and longterm plans to foster student learning 4.5 Modifying instructional plans to adjust for student needs 
THE IMPORTANCE
One way that I use models with kids is with proving answers. I think my fifth graders are sick of me saying, “Prove it!” to them, but they are learning how to create proof of what they feel is the correct answer. I think this is extremely important, for many reasons. They learn to rely on themselves and trust their answers. Also, they often discover that their original prediction of how the problem would work out is wrong, but in attempting to prove it, they found the path to the right answer. It is also an important life skill to know how to improvise in many situations, and models are more flexible to situations than rote questions and answers are. THE NECESSITY
A group of my fifthgrade students approached me the other day to ask if I like science as much as they think I do. I said yes, but then asked them why they thought to ask the question. “Because,” one said, “no matter what you’re teaching, you ask us to predict, and that’s a science word.” The first step of the fivestar model finds out what the students know, and gets them interested in what will happen next. It works especially well with science and math, but with other subjects as well. Next, the students move through the processes by considering the real world (“What do I see in front of me?”), to representation (“How can I model this on paper?”), to abstract reasoning (“How can I say this in words?”), and then back to making formulas. One experience I had with this was a oneonone with a student that had fallen behind. The class had been using definitions they wrote in their math journals for the last few weeks to solve problems dealing with range, mode, mean, and median. This boy had gotten bored during the first introduction (which was the teacher reading each definition and rather quickly explaining them with no demonstration) and not written all of the definitions, and there fore missed every fiveaday question on the topic. I finally sat down with him and, by going through each of the five steps, retaught the lesson. We drew models, talked about things we had seen that were similar, wrote new definitions for each word, and practiced with a set of numbers. At the end, he said, “That’s all I was supposed to be doing? This is easy.” By taking the time to go through each step of the process, a lasting impression of the concepts is created. This is, after all, the reason for teaching, right? I plan to introduce ideas in the way that I worked with the student, hopefully to create more understanding immediately, and less misunderstanding later. 


